An inverse association between magnesium in 24-h urine and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged subjects in 50 CARDIAC Study populations.
Serum, plasma and dietary magnesium (Mg) have been reported to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. We examined the associations between the 24-h urinary Mg/creatinine (Cre) ratio and cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), serum total cholesterol (TC) and prevalence of obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 4211 participants (49.7% women) aged 48-56 years in 50 population samples from 22 countries in the World Health Organization-coordinated Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study (1985-1994). In linear regression analyses, Mg/Cre ratio was inversely associated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and TC (P for linear trend <0.001 for each). These associations were not markedly altered by adjustment for traditional risk factors, urinary markers or cohort effects. Multivariate-adjusted mean values for the subjects in the highest Mg/Cre ratio quintile were 6.3, 3.4, 5.3 and 4.6% lower than those for the subjects in the lowest quintile for BMI, SBP, DBP and TC (P<0.001, respectively). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.95), 1.55 (1.25, 1.92) and 2.06 (1.63, 2.62) times higher (P<0.001, respectively) among the subjects in the lowest Mg/Cre ratio quintile than in the subjects in the highest quintile. These associations were not appreciably altered by adjustment for potential confounding variables. In conclusion, higher 24-h urinary Mg/Cre ratio was associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk factors, including BMI, BP, TC, obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension Research advance online publication, 30 October 2014; doi:10.1038/hr.2014.158.
Expert Comments by Carolyn Dean, MD, ND:
“Medical research has shown that when a person has higher levels of serum, plasma and dietary magnesium they experience less cardiovascular disease. This study of 4,211 subjects confirms that this is the case. Using 24-hour urine measurement for magnesium, researchers found that the higher the magnesium in the urine – meaning the body is saturated, to an extent, with magnesium and releases excess magnesium in the urine – the lower the levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors. The risk factors measured include BMI (measure of body fat), blood pressure, obesity, and cholesterol. Magnesium therefore appears to have a preventive effect on body fat, blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol.”
“This study is tremendous news because it is specifically stating that magnesium positively influences the risk factors of heart disease not just a blanket statement about heart disease itself. To the list of body fat (BMI), blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol we can also add diabetes since low magnesium is a medically-accepted sign of diabetes.”
Yamori Y1, Sagara M2, Mizushima S3, Liu L4, Ikeda K5, Nara Y6. An inverse association between magnesium in 24-h urine and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged subjects in 50 CARDIAC Study populations. Hypertens Res. 2014 Oct 30. doi: 10.1038/hr.2014.158.