Magnesium Deficiency and High Blood Pressure in Children


To evaluate the association of hypomagnesemia with prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension in children.

Study design

A total of 3954 apparently healthy Mexican children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria were type 2 diabetes; hepatic, renal, or endocrine disease; impaired fasting glucose; chronic diarrhea; and intake of vitamins or magnesium supplements in the previous 6 months. preHTN was defined by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90th to <95th percentile and hypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile, according to age, sex, and height percentile. Hypomagnesemia was defined by serum magnesium concentration <1.8 mg/dL (<0.74 mmol/L). To control for potential sources of bias related to age, participants were allocated into 2 groups, aged 6-10 years and 11-15 years.


The prevalence of preHTN and hypertension was 12.2% and 6.4%, respectively, in children aged 6-10 years and 13.9% and 10.6% in those aged 11-15 years. Hypomagnesemia was identified in 59 children with preHTN (27.3%) and 52 (45.6%) with hypertension in the 6-10 year age group, and in 115 children with preHTN (36.0%) and 109 (49.6%) with hypertension in the 11-15 year age group. Adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis showed that in children in both age groups, hypomagnesemia was associated with both preHTN (6-10 years: OR, 2.18, P < .0005; 11-15 years: OR, 1.38, P = .018) and hypertension (6-10 years: OR, 4.87, P < .0005; 11-15 years: OR, 1.83, P = .0002).


Our results indicate that serum magnesium level <1.8 mg/dL is significantly associated with preHTN and hypertension in apparently healthy children.

Abbreviation Index

BMI (Body mass index), BP (Blood pressure), DBP (Diastolic blood pressure), HBP (High blood pressure), HDL-C (High-density lipoprotein cholesterol), preHTN (Prehypertension), SBP (Systolic blood pressure), WC (Waist circumference)


Fernando Guerrero-Romero, MD, PhD, Martha Rodríguez-Morán, MD, MSc, PhD, Gabriela Hernández-Ronquillo,MD, Rita Gómez-Díaz, MSc, María L. Pizano-Zarate, MD, MSc, Niels H. Wacher, MD, MSc, Rafael Mondragón-González, MD, Luis E. Simental-Mendia, MD, MSc, PhD on behalf of the Network of Childhood Obesity of the Mexican Social Security Institute(Ana María Salinas Martínez, MD, PhD, Andrea Socorro Álvarez Villaseñor, MD, Anel Gómez García, MD, PhD,Antonio Pineda Carranza, MD,Brian González Pérez, MD,Carolina Elizabeth Medina Escobedo, MD,Cecilia Colunga Rodríguez, MD, PhD, Celsa López Campos, MD, MSc,Cruz Mónica López Morales, MD, Eduardo Almeida Gutiérrez, MD, MSc, Eulalia Piedad Garrido Magaña, MD, Flor Araceli Nava Ayala, MD,Francisco González Salazar, MD, Gabriela Borrayo Sánchez, MD, PhD, Gabriela Escudero Lourdes, MD,Gloria Patricia Sosa Bustamante, MD, Guadalupe Ruíz Vivanco, MSc, PhD, Haydé Rosas Vargas, MD,Héctor Rafael Sánchez Nuncio, MD, MSc, Irma Isordia Salas, MD, PhD, Jesus Nares Cisneros, MD,José de Jesús Peralta Romero, MD, MSc, PhD, José Ramón Paniagua Sierra, MD, MSc, PhD, Laura Hermila de la Garza, MD, Ma. Guadalupe Ruíz Charles, MD, Marco Antonio León Mazón, MD, Mardia López Alarcón, MD, MSc, María de Socorro Romero Figueroa, MD, María Elena Haro Acosta, MD, Maria Elena Y. Furuya Meguro, MD, PhD, María Eugenia Galván Plata, MD,María Valeria Jiménez Baéz, MD, Martha I. Dávila Rodríguez, MD, Miguel Angel Villasis Keever, MD, MSc, Miguel Cruz López, PhD, Mirna Aurea Huerta Orea, MD, Norma Alicia Sánchez Hernández, MD, Ricardo Jorge Hernández Herrera, MD, Ricardo Pérez Fuentes, MSc, PhD, Ricardo Salas Flores, MD,
Rosa Ortega Cortés, MD, Sonia Lazcano, MD)
List of members of the Network of Childhood Obesity of the Mexican Social Security Institute is available at ( Appendix ). Received: June 9, 2015; Received in revised form: July 29, 2015; Accepted: September 15, 2015; Published Online: October 18, 2015. The Journal of Pediatrics

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