Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep;96(3):622-31. Epub 2012 Aug 1.
Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis.
Wark PA, Lau R, Norat T, Kampman E.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, and the Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation.
We evaluated the hypothesis of whether higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with reduced colorectal tumor risk.
A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses. Data analysis comprised multiple logistic regression analysis (case-control study) and fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses.
The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m(2)) ?25, in subjects aged ?55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97).
Our findings support the hypothesis that higher intakes of dietary magnesium are associated with lower risk of colorectal tumors. The consumption of magnesium-rich foods may be a new avenue to explore further in the search for cancer-prevention strategies.