The Association between the Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium Status among University Students: A Case Control Study.
[Health Promotion Perspectives, 2015, 5(3), 225-230]. [Health Promot Perspect. 2016]
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of major health problems in childbearing age women. Herein, we compared the nutritional status of vitamin D, calcium and magnesium in young students affected by PMS with those of normal participants.
This study was conducted on 62 students aged 20‒25 yr in the city of Abadan (31 PMS cases and 31 controls). All participants completed four or more criteria according to the Utah PMS Calendar 3. Age, height, body mass index (BMI), serum Calcium, Magnesium and vitamin D levels and a 24-hour food recall questionnaire were recorded.
Vitamin D serum levels were lower than the normal range in the two groups. The odds ratios (CI 95%) of having PMS based on serum Calcium and Magnesium concentrations were 0.81(0.67 – 0.89) and 0.86 (0.72 – 0.93), respectively. Based on serum levels, 85% of all participants showed vitamin D deficiency and more than one-third of the PMS cases were Magnesium deficient (P<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in dietary intake of Calcium and Magnesium, and potassium but not vitamin D in the two groups. Dietary intakes of Calcium and Magnesium were quite below the recommendation in all participants.
Vitamin D, Ca;cium and Magnesium nutritional status are compromised in PMS subjects. Because PMS is a prevalent health problem among young women, it merits more attention regarding improvement of their health and nutritional status.